What are neutron stars made out of?

The existence of neutron stars was first proposed by Baade and Zwicky in 1934, right after the discovery of the neutron by Chadwick in 1932. But what are neutron stars really made out of? Only neutrons? (…)

pastaNewtonThe nuclear pasta phase

Towards the interior of neutron stars, the formation of clusters, which have exotic shapes, due to a competition between the nuclear and Coulomb interactions, become possible. They were termed “nuclear pasta” because they resemble the italian pasta. (…)

The Hyperon PuzzleHyp_Puzz

Due to the large value of the density in neutron stars, new hadronic degrees of freedom as Hyperons, baryons with a strangeness content, are expected to appear in addition to nucleons. (…)

QCD_phase_diagram_Fig3The QCD phase diagram and the critical end point

At high temperatures and/or densities quark deconfinement occurs and hadronic matter undergoes a phase transition into a new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). (…)

How important are transport coefficients to learn about neutron stars?r-mode_boundaries

One possible way to extract information on the structure of neutron stars is to study the dynamical processes that occur in their interior and the associated transport coefficients. A transport coefficient refers to the response of a system to some external perturbation. (…)

Cassiopeia_and_neutronSuperfluidity and Superconductivity in Neutron Stars

Superfluidity and superconductivity are among the most striking macroscopic manifestations of quantum mechanics. Neutrons and protons are fermions, and due to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, they generally tend to avoid themselves. (…)

non-spinning,spinningI-Love-Q: universality in properties of neutron stars

Neutron stars (NSs) in a simple textbook-like setup where they are non-rotating, have no magnetic fields, and are in isolation in their equilibrium configuration are almost perfect spheres due to their strong self-gravity. (…)

lighthouseExploring fundamental physics with neutron stars

We describe how astronomical observations of various external macroscopic features can give invaluable information about the exotic microscopic scenario inside. (…)

Gamma Ray Bursts and Magnetars

Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most violent events in the Universe.We know today that the Long GRBs are associated to the death of massive stars, while the Short ones are more likely due to merger events of old compact objects (Neutron Stars and/or Black Holes). (…)

Supernova Remnants

Supernova remnants (SNRs) are the remains of material thrown out into space by a supernova explosion. The high speed collision between chemical elements processed in the supernova and the interstellar medium can produce some of the most beautiful objects in the sky (…)

Neutron Star Binaries

Neutron Stars are among the most exotic objects in the Universe. With a mass of about 1.5 the mass of our Sun and a radius of about 10 km, a neutron star is the most compact stable configuration in which degeneracy pressure of matter can still balance gravity. (…)

Gravitational Waves

In contrast to the electromagnetic waves, with gravitational waves we ”listen” rather than ”watch” the Universe by registering minor disturbances of the space-time curvature using kilometer scale laser interferometric detectors (…)

Core-collapse supernovae: fascinating cosmic fireworks

In the starry sky, one can observe spectacular and beautiful explosions: supernovae. These stellar explosions can be so bright that they can outshine an entire galaxy. (…)